Wind Sun Waves driven sailing machine

Dear Visitor,
this is a non-commercial site presenting some outside the box ideas for wind driven vehicles as this is what I like to do.

The Wind-Sun-Waves driven sailing machine is a collection of yacht concepts, meant to be environmentally correct, where energies from Wind, Sun and Waves are utilized for ballasting, propulsion and on board energy maintenance.

Here are presented concepts with the ultimate goals:
- to make easy to use, environmentally correct sailboat
- to make the boat more energy self-sufficient
- to make the boat faster by using: solar energy, waves energy and wing-sails
  for propulsion - sometimes all energy types at the same time 

 

Following concepts will be present:

1 Lateral Ballast Boat
2 Variable Shape Wing
3 Adding propulsion to centerboard or rudder 
4 Catamaran with Telescopic Wings 
5 Sailing against the wind with Flapping Propulsion
6 Hyper Servo (HyS)
7 Aqua Flyer - the ultimate fun.... 

 

1 Lateral Ballast Boat

 


Above: The area where the ballast system is located


A good idea will be to use purpose build e-motors/generators as an integral part of the ballast weight.
When the motor can be designed with heavy materials it will be beneficial when included in the ballast weight and make the whole system more efficient– see below:

 

Above: Only 2 motor-weight units are depicted for clarity of the sketch. It is to be understood that when they can on demand move simultaneously with the same speed then the gravity center (LCG) remains at the same x while the center of gravity moves transversally (TCG). Using several ballast members it will be possible to influence pitch and heeling of the boat, damp excessive hull movement and produce electricity – sometimes all at the same time. As the hull is going to be close to horizontal position there is possible to move the ballast units to wanted position just by gravity.
This is telling us that the idea has a big potential for development and is kind of universal
as it apply to motor boats and big ships as well.

The solution how to locate and move the ballast is very important in order to get a maximum of useful weight at the wanted spot. There are several reasons to move the ballast units circularly - one is that there is no hard ends...

A general observation is that at 90 degrees or 270 degrees the ballasts are most effective for affecting trim/pitching/slamming.
The same is that at 0 degrees and 180 degrees the ballasts are most affecting heeling/rolling.
This is one of the beauties of proposed circular lateral ballast system - see below:

Above: this sketch is depicting a model therefore the ballast members are related to the middle of the boat but on real boat 6-8 ballast units will run inside a ballast ring therfore it will not occupy the middle area of the boat.

Summary:
When a self learning electronic system will control the movement of the ballast unit it can be expected the unexpected....

 

2 Variable Shape Wing

The Variable Shape Wing is based on fact that if a foil shape is rotated and projected on surface then the camber and thickness of this foil are changed however the general foil shape is intact.
The shape of the wing skin is determined by ribs edges projection on surfaces perpendicular to mast axis direction at each rib position.
The actual thickness and camber of the Rib are the same all the time only the angle of the rib is changed. 

This is explained by following sketches:

Above: a well-known wing section Clark-Y of 11.7% thickness

 

Above: Clark-Y of 17.25% thickness (scaled up by factor 1.5 from 11.7% thickness)

Above: 11.7% and 17.25% (blue) together on same figure.                                                       

Above: 17.25% foil shape rotated by 60 degrees and projected on 11.7% foil plane
Note that there is no shape difference after projection....
and this means that we can by simple rotate the rib and adjust the thickness/camber of the wing from almost 0 to 18% in both camber directions when rotating +/- 90 degrees.

https://youtu.be/a49RpF_Mj0U
https://youtu.be/0kDEAyLkZwg 

In general, the spar (mast) is inside the wing, is freestanding and non-rotating.
Probably it needs to be built of sections.
On this spare are mounted rotating ribs. The ribs have a fixed shape of chosen foil type.
The ribs can rotate 180 degrees or more exact +/-90 degrees from their 0-degree position.
In addition, the ribs can be rotated endlessly on the spar/mast axis.
It is obvious that the first attempts are going to be done on model
therefore, the RC servos are used in order to move the ribs.
This is explained by the series of sketches made for the wing model and depicted below:

 

Above: Top view of Variable Wing having 5 rotating rib units - the skin is removed.
           The twist is 5 degrees per rib and the ribs are angled

 

Sketch presented below will help to understand the range of deformation of the wing skin.

 

Above: Principal lines of the wing skin. The tail is moving about 25mm on wing chord of 800mm (to 825mm) depending on adjusted wings shape.

It can be observed that the part of the skin from mast center toward tail can be made stiff both horizontally and vertically as it not changing much its shape.
However, the part of the skin from mast center toward nose needs to be highly elastic horizontally while very stiff vertically (along the mast).
The GRAY line is depicting the proposed shape for skin manufacturing.
If the skin is manufactured already with shape placed in the middle of the deformation range it will minimize the stress in the material.

 

Above: Conceptual sketch of Rotating Rib unit 

 

Above: The wing gets thinner to the tip and is twisted at the same time

 

Above: Application of the variable shape wings.
           Sail boat at broad reaching on starboard tack is the fastest course. (except when on trailer)

 

Above: Running  – Note that installed wings are maybe maximum high but not maximum wide yet. 

When running, boats often gets excessive rolling. This is when wind and waves have same period as the boat rolling resonans frequency. Note that the Lateral Ballast Variable Wing boat can damp this excessive dangerous boat movement easily by means of lateral ballast or wing adjustements.   

 

Summary:
The proposed Variable shape Wing is solving many problems of sail adjustement
and when using locally mounted sensors at each RIB level then this wing will show much higher efficiency in utilizing energy from wind. The idea is universal and can be used for Ice boats, centerboards, rudders and aeroplanes as well....
The disadvantege is that is using many parts which requires high quality but compared to car it is still not complicated.

 

 

3 Adding propulsion to centerboard or rudder 

The idea is to design the rudder/centerboard fins partly rigid partly flexible - just to mimic fish fins or swim fins.

The ShapeWays company has introduced a flexible material for 3D printing.
It is very complex matter to do the design right but the first attempt might look like these depicted below: 

It is to observe that the rudders are not heavy and are able to rotate 360 degrees.
This makes the fish fin like propulsion very interesting as trust can be provided in any direction relative to the boat hull.

The idea is that the flexible part have to be stiff enough to act as rudder/centerboard fin during sailing while when moving quickly to sides it will bend properly.

 

Above: By the blue colour is mark the flexible part of the flapping rudders

In addition, it is to understand that the 2 rudders configuration in line provides the nice possibility to keep the hull on course by prohibiting zigzaking.      

It is obvious that the drag of such arrangement is higher that rudder fin only so the question is if the benefit of simple propulsive function make it valuable anyway. Still it is lot to be find out about the "flapping"......
When the foil is bending it provides a camber which is increasing the lift force of the foil....
The first part is now just an elipse but may be designed to improve the flow around the main foil...? (the blue part) Just think about the slat function at the leading edge utilised by birds and in avionics.

 

Summary:
The proposed way to improve rudders and centreboards require more work but it feels that there is something hiding....

 

 

 

 

4 Catamaran with Telescopic Wings

The wind energy content increases with wind speed squared and this is leading to call for for reefing.

Reefing was solved on sail yachts and sail ships by designers in many different ways.
One idea of reefing is to use telescopic wing as proposed here, which is suitable for automation.
Although the idea is not new the proposed solution might be.

Another observation is that depend on boat position relative wind direction the required or rather possible to apply sail area is very different.
Sailing close to wind requires much less sail area when compared to situation when the wind is blowing from behind like during running.

As the configuration with two masts and rigid asymmetric foils is new to me it will take some time to figure out how it should be used beneficially and what other opportunities, not revealed yet, exists.

 

Above: Using two none rotating masts, located traversals, gives some redundancy and allow high
            “freestanding” masts.

Masts have eliptic shape set at 30 degrees from the boat center line. 

The longitudinal stability of the masts needs to be improved by one wire.

The traversal stability of the masts needs to be improved by a connector at the top.

The wings are on the roof therefore they can be easily adjusted for zero lift via AoA at any time without disturbing sailors living area or visibility.

Above: The masts are of elliptic shape and have fix height and are connected by bar on top.

             The wing shells fixing is build of 2 parts. The ring (dark grey) is sliding on the mast while the external ring (light grey) can rotate 360 degrees so is the wing shell /section.

 

Above: The telescopic wings can be now very high so we can get very powerful wings.
              
Note that this boat uses cambered wing sections made as hard shells. This is the essence of proposed solution as the camber is fix and there is a problem…one wing can not be in use when close hauled as its camber is in wrong direction.
The solution is to take this wing down and set at AoA producing zero lift and low drag.
There is another possibility to be tested when the other wing is reversed 180 degrees however still needs to be taken down when tacking. Note that taking down the wing is in most cases safe action.


As we can easily reduce the wing surface it is safe to be overpowered as with increased wind speed the wing can be set quickly shorter. The wings depicted in this document are not yet properly sized as the model does not need to be extreme from the beginning.

The wings can be wider and the masts/wings higher.
Note that just one of the wings can already overpower the boat at 10m/s. This means that the other wing is down. This leads to situation that the wings can have very optimal asymmetric foil shape allowing the boat sailing close to wind.
While the mast is standing for rigidity then the wing shells can be made much lighter when compared to case when the shells need to be strong as well.
This entire means that the boat will be fast already by low wind speed – as is “overpowered” by design.

 

When tacking the wings need to go up and down therefore fast manoeuvring of the wings is essential.
Proposed configuration might improve the tacking on catamarans as the wings are not mounted in the centre? As the wings can be set to zero lift at tacking?
I assume that spinnaker is not any good proposition....

 

So, at first all this sounds stupid but is nicely balancing the wings area depend on boat course.

Here is to be noted that speed is the most important parameter – slow boat is not a good boat and most of the human population will not pay attention.
Still this is by wind propelled boat not by petrol….

  

I must admit that I do like these telescopic wings for first time….

  1. Overpowered yet safe as the area can be quickly changed while weight centre lowered
  2. Ability to twist the wing as it is sectioned is essential for efficiency of the wing
  3. The sail plane is very efficient as the mast is inside and the foil section keeps always its shape
  4. Some degree of redundancy exists as we do have 2 masts and 2 wings
  5. The mass centre is positioned lower when necessary
  6. The boat is fast already at low wind speed as is overpowered by design
  7. The Spinnaker is not necessary as the wing area is doubled when running
  8. The rudders can be of flapping rudder type enabling good manoeuvrability in harbour
  9. The deck is clean as the gears necessary to control the boat are vastly reduced
  10. The wing shells can be 3D printed as this is the future manufacturing process

Huge development/improvement capability once on the market  

 

 

Above: Close haulde at strong winds.....

 

Above: The wings expose very little area when necessary - like in port.

 

Summary:
The proposed tandem mast CAT shows remarkable characteristics of being able to carry huge “sail” area while running while very efficient “sail” at close hauled.
Note also that the design is not as classic car antenna but I do think that it is better due to the ability to carry high masts.

Many details are here omitted for clarity but the whole boat is enough simple to be worth testing…..

 

 

 

 

5 Sailing against the wind with Flapping Propulsion

The Lateral Ballast Variable Wing project proposed for sailing boats  gets suddenly transformed into flapping propulsion boat. Particularly propulsion of a catamaran will be tested at first.
The proposed acronym for this propulsion solution will be DFPS which stands for Dual Flapping Propulsion System.

The main goal of this project is to prove that another way to provide propulsion for wind driven boat might be valid.
It is almost certain that this kind of boat will be called wingboat instead of sailboat, however, sailing still will be possible….;-)

One of the surprising ability of proposed solution is that the boat will be able sailing fast directly heading into the wind’s eye.

A very short explanation of the functionality of this new boat depicted below:
The above deck wing is driven by lift force and move up and down. The lift direction is changed via the angle of attack or angle and camber when using variable shape wing proposed for LBVW boat. 

The above deck wing is mechanically connected to the underwater flapping fin thus a propulsive force is provided to the boat.

One very important feature of proposed propulsion system is that the above deck wing and the connector are floating on the buoyancy of the underwater flapping parts which are designed to

The Lateral Ballast Variable Wing project proposed for sailing boats gets suddenly transformed into flapping propulsion boat. Particularly propulsion of a catamaran will be tested at first.
The proposed acronym for this propulsion solution will be DFPS which stands for Dual Flapping Propulsion System.

The main goal of this project is to prove that another way to provide propulsion for wind driven boat might be valid.
It is almost certain that this kind of boat will be called wingboat instead of sailboat, however, sailing still will be possible….;-)

One of the surprising ability of proposed solution is that the boat will be able sailing fast directly heading into the wind’s eye.

A very short explanation of the functionality of this new boat depicted below:
The above deck wing is driven by lift force and move up and down. The lift direction is changed via the angle of attack or angle and camber when using variable shape wing proposed for LBVW boat. 

The above deck wing is mechanically connected to the underwater flapping fin thus a propulsive force is provided to the boat.

One very important feature of proposed propulsion system is that the above deck wing and the connector are floating on the buoyancy of the underwater flapping parts which are designed to balance the gravity force of the whole propulsion system. The boat hull has its own buoyancy.
Note also that eventually mounted stern rudders are not depicted as it is not certain if they are necessary.

 

Above:  Conceptual sketch of an experimental catamaran with proposed Dual Flapping Propulsion System.
Note that the propulsion provided by the water fin can be directed forward, astern or any other direction.
The deck hub (blue) can rotate together with the wing-fin connector (yellow) which is free to slide up and down at the same time.
Note also that any direction of the true wind will provide propulsion including when heading directly into the true wind.
The above deck wing will be utilised at 3-6 degrees of attack angle when at high speed, therefore, the drag of the boat propulsion system is very low promising good efficiency.
The above deck wing and the underwater flapping fin will have the ability to set the attack angle +/- 90 degrees for different purposes.   

The way of thinking is as follow:  when a traditional sailing boat is sailing close to the wind then only approx 15-30% of the force produced by sail is directed in direction of travel. The remaining force is heeling the boat and therefore a keel as ballast or other righting methods are necessary.
In order to utilise the full power of sail, it is necessary to sail Beam Reach, however, if the boat is fast then it will end Close Hauled anyway.
No sailing boat equipped with soft sails is able to sail directly into the wind eye yet but that is about to change….;-)
So the question is how to fix Beam Reach sailing all the time?

This is leading us to the conclusion that a wing can be mounted horizontally, like on an aeroplane.
It means that the lift can be directed effectively, straight up or down, just by setting right camber and right attack angle.
It also means that the by wing produced force - straight up or down directed lift force is at its possible maximum all the time.

 

Lately acquired knowledge about flapping propulsion like the fishes it telling us that it can be expected high efficiency
when such air “flapping” wing drives directly a flapping fin in the water – no gears, no losing efficiency.
It is to be noted that the ground-effect is probably important part of proposed solution as the wing is exactly placed where the ground-effect take place.

The beauty of proposed solution is that the wing systems weight is balanced by the flapping fin-rudder buoyancy in the water so it is to understand that the wings propulsion system is floating on the water – well… the weight is almost zero.
The idea results that there is no need to hold the weight of the wing system. However, it needs to accelerate the mass of the system by every stroke and overcome the resistance on the stroke of the underwater parts of the system. It might be an easy way to recover the kinetic energy at each reversing by means of the magnetic spring device. Such a magnetic spring damper has almost no losses.

The experimental boat needs to be able to provide maximal utilisation of wind and water for propulsion therefore no much simplifications are planned. So, the system needs to be highly controlled by electronics, however, a simple solution will be tested at the beginning as well.

A benefit can be observed that the flapping fin system has own buoyancy and its kind of unique that the propulsion system does not need to be calculated into the boat (hull) weight. So the result is that we drive a very light boat and this promises high speed?

It is very convenient characteristics of the boat that there is no need to provide a ballasting means as the heeling is mostly due to waves and not the result of the aerodynamical forces. This means very light boat – more speed and probably record speed when sailing into the wind eye.
Still, the Lateral Ballast can be used together and be efficient way to collect electrical energy from the system while damp the pitching and roll of the boat. It is no doubt that the solar panels will be used and contributes to energy maintenance on the boat.

 

Above: Parts mark blue has own buoyancy (separate from catamaran’s hulls) and moves up and down together as a weightless unit.
The point here is that just a little wind can already move the propulsion unit up and down as only inertia is involved.
This is most important part of the invention – little wind speed will do the propulsion as well.

Above: Parts mark blue are connected in a way allowing 360 degrees rotation while moving up and down and adjusting angle of attack

 

Above: Parts mark blue are connected in a way allowing 360 degrees rotation regardless rotation of the yellow mark part while moving up and down together with the yellow part while adjusting air wing angle of attack.

  

At first sight, all this looks stupid but think that it is:

- Not necessary to have ballast, or little one, on single hull boat, however, lateral ballast may be beneficial for energy production

- Not necessary to de-power the sails to keep the heeling at optimum (no reefing or sail deformation)

- The rig and “sails” has virtually no weight – the propulsion system float on its own

- Possibly ground effect can be utilised to improve the CD and CL

- The lee-way of the boat is eliminated

- Possibly bi-plane can increase wing area

- The centre of gravity can be lowered at high wind speed by limiting the stroke length (moving just little bit above the deck)

- Ability to produce electric energy by means of linear generator/motor

- Variable Shape Wing can improve the efficiency of proposed system by improving the CD and CL

- Possibly to obtain some propulsion by utilising wave’s energy

- The upper wing surface can be covered by solar cells, and when possible adjusted perpendicular to the sun rays


Summary:
One can wonder why this should work when all testing with rotating wind turbine shows that it is not working well.
The answer is hiding in the simple fact that rotating land mounted turbine is not very sensitive to where the vector of lift is directed - it still producing power.
Note that the fast rotating blade makes own wind, then the resulting lift vector is not directed perpendicular to the blowing wind but rather to the apparent wind.
Once such rotating turbine is mounted on a boat with the aim to sail direct into wind eye then only a part of the lift vector is directed as propulsion.
Observe that it is not only the aerodynamic drag of the propeller blades hindering the boat but also part of the miss-directed lift vector pointing at an angle to the stern of the boat.

Therefore the possible solution is to increase the wing area and slow down wings perpendicular to wind motion.
There is a big difference between land mounted turbine and ship – the ship is moving. When the ship moves against the wind then the area of the system increases laterally, therefore, more power can be extracted from the wind per time unit. All this makes that that we can operate the wing at small angles of attack and the wing movement perpendicular to the wind can be increased when the apparent wind increases due to the higher speed of the boat.
These facts allow us to utilise all the time the force of the lift vector directed up or down at very low drag when compared to the wind turbine.

 

 

6 Hyper Servo (HyS)

The  Hyper Servo is a servo motor mechanism with added functionality required by all of the ideas present here.
The development work is on its way and the result will be revealed here soon.

General specification for HyS:

- Radio controlled 2.4Ghz
- Continuous rotation (endlessly turning 360 degrees including high resolution positioning)
- Ability to hold with maximum torque set position without power for unlimited time
- Ability to release output shaft free to enable by external force turning output axis
- Ability to set/keep and remember position of external geared axis without external sensor

Any comments?

 

 


7 Aqua Flyer - the ultimate fun.... 

is coooomming....

 

 

Wind Lover as on Shapeways.com - just for Kids but still wind driven....
https://youtu.be/10NPkrdDmrw

 



2016-05-19

The "Sea Hawk" is the real thing I am sailing - It is Ron Holland design Omega 30S
The bottom is 5x painted with Hempels High Protect - no other paint is used anymore....

 

 

To be continued......